Clomiphene (Clomid, Serophene)
is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), it blocks estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, which tricks the pituitary into producing FSH and LH by preventing negative feedback in hypothalamus.
An increased level of FSH improves the chances of growing an ovarian follicle that can then trigger ovulation.
In women who ovulate irregularly, approximately 80 percent who take clomiphene will ovulate, and 30 to 40 percent of all women who take clomiphene become pregnant.
50 mg are taken each day for five days, usually starting two days after the period starts (one pill on Day 3 through Day 7). If successful, ovulation occurs about a week after the last pill has been taken. It is typically recommended that women attempt no more than 4-6 cycles of Clomiphene
Risks and side effects
- Ovarian cancer: In some studies, researchers have found that using Clomiphene for longer than one year may increasethe risk for developing ovarian tumors.
- Clomiphene reduces the amount and quality of cervical mucous which decreases the capacity for sperm to through the cervical canal
- Clomiphene may cause thinning of the uterine lining which causes implantation failure. For patients who ovulate on Clomid but fail to conceive, it is suspected that this effect on the uterine lining may be the explanation.
- Multiple births- Approximately 6-8% of Clomiphene conceptions are multiple.
- Other side effects include ovarian cysts, hot flashes, nausea, headaches, weight gain, and fatigue.